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14.04.2015  11:19

V. PRACTICAL ADVICE FOR RESIDENTS: HOW TO BEHAVE IN CASE OF AN EMERGENCY OR WAR

1. In case of a siren alarm

“Attention everybody” is a warning, pulsating 3-minute-long alert signal (9 seconds of the sound with 6-second pauses). It announces about the threat of an impending or existing extreme situation, the testing of the warning system or civil safety drills.

Upon hearing the alarm:

  • Turn on the radio or television and listen to information reports and recommendations;
  • Follow the recommendations strictly;
  • Stay tuned to LRT (the national broadcaster) radio and/or LRT television programmes;
  • Wait for further instructions.

“Chemical risk” is a voice signal-announcement warning about the actual or impending danger of the chemical hazard in a certain territory. It is broadcast over the radio and/or television, audible emergency alarm systems and electronic sirens no later than 3 minutes after the transmission of the audible alarm signal starts.

Upon hearing the alarm: 

  • Remove yourself from the contaminated area immediately. Move perpendicularly to the direction of the wind, so that the wind would be blowing to your side;
  • If there is no possibility to remove yourself from the contaminated area immediately, stay indoors or, if you are outside, go inside;
  • Turn off ventilation, air supply, air-conditioning and heating systems, close windows, vents, chimney valves, cover the ventilation holes, inspect, if there are no holes, seal windows and doors;
  • Do not go outside unless it is absolutely necessary; should you go outside, protect your respiratory system: put on a bandage made from wet cotton and gauze or cover your nose and mouth with a wet towel. Use a respirator, if you have one. It is necessary to protect one’s skin; waterproof clothes and footwear will serve this purpose best. When you return home, have a shower, put on clean clothes and put the dirty ones into a polythene bag and remove them from the living quarters;
  • Prepare yourself for evacuation.

“Radiation risk” is a voice signal-announcement, warning about the actual or impending danger of radioactive contamination in a certain area.  It is broadcast over the radio and/or television, audible emergency alarm systems and electronic sirens no later than 3 minutes after the beginning of transmission of the audible alarm signal.

Upon hearing the alarm: 

  • Stay indoors, or, if you are outside, go inside;
  • Turn off ventilation, air supply, air-conditioning and heating systems, close windows, vents, chimney valves, cover the ventilation holes, inspect, if there are no holes, seal windows and doors;
  • Do not go outside, unless it is absolutely unnecessary, protect your respiratory system: cover your face with a disposable face mask, a handkerchief or a towel. When you are outside, use a gas mask or a respirator, if you have one;
  • Herd nearby livestock to a barn, close the greenhouses, and cover the wells;
  • When you return home, take a shower, put on clean clothes and put the dirty ones into a polythene bag and remove them from the living quarters;
  • Prepare yourself for potential evacuation;
  • Do not panic; warn your relatives and neighbours.

“Catastrophic flooding” is a verbal signal-notification warning about the actual or impending danger of catastrophic flooding in case of an accident in Kaunas Hydroelectric Power Plant. This signal is broadcast for the residents of Kaunas city, Šakiai, Jurbarkas and Šilutė district. It is broadcast over the radio and/or television, audible emergency alarm systems or electronic sirens no later than after 3 minutes after the beginning of transmission of the audible alarm signal.

Upon hearing the alarm: 

  • If you are in the flooding area of Kaunas Hydroelectric Power Plant, withdraw to higher and safe territories as soon as possible;
  • Residents of Kaunas are asked to leave Petrašiūnai, Žemieji Šančiai, the city centre, Jiesia, Geležinkelio Square, the lower part of Aleksotas, Vilijampolė, Marvelė, Lampėdžiai and Žemutiniai Kaniūkai;
  • Residents of Kaunas, Šakiai, Jurbarkas, Šilutė districts and Pagėgiai municipality are asked to leave settlements next to Nemunas; 
  • Leaving your house, turn off the gas, electricity, water, take documents, money and other valuable possessions. If you cannot leave, ascend to the upper floors of the house;
  • Prepare yourself for potential evacuation;
  • Do not panic, warn your relatives and neighbours.

“Flooding risk” is a voice signal-announcement, warning about the actual or impending danger of flooding due to the thaw or intensive rainfalls, after which the water level in rivers raises to a dangerous level. It is broadcast over the radio and/or television, audible emergency alarm systems and electronic sirens no later than 3 minutes after the beginning of transmission of the audible alarm signal.

Upon hearing the alarm: 

  • Be prepared to protect your life, livestock and property;
  • Prepare all swimming equipment in your possession, get the most primitive rafts, waterproofs (fishing boots, coats, etc.);
  • Make sure that you have some non-perishable food, drinking water and essential medicines;
  • Leave your cars in a safe territory and store valuable possessions as high as possible;
  • Take care of water drain systems and clean storm drain grates;
  • Prepare yourself for potential evacuation;
  • Do not panic; warn your relatives and neighbours.

“Hurricane risk” is a voice signal-announcement, warning about the impending weather event that can lead to the state of emergency. It is broadcast over the radio and/or television, audible emergency alarm systems and electronic sirens no later than 3 minutes after the beginning of transmission of the audible alarm signal.

Upon hearing the alarm: 

  • Stay indoors, or, if you are outside, go inside, do not hide close to light structures or large trees;
  • Extinguish the fire in the furnace, turn off electric appliances and gas. Close doors, windows, vents, chimney valves and cover the ventilation holes;
  • Remove light things from the balcony or secure them. Do not leave vehicles next to large trees;
  • If you live in a wood house or a light-frame house, hide in the basement;
  • Postpone planned trips;
  • Do not panic; warn your relatives and neighbours;
  • Heads of companies, institutions and organisations must warn their employees about the impending hurricane and inform them that the works must be terminated. Make sure to reinforce the temporary foundations and structures as well as the machinery and equipment.

“Air alert” is a voice signal-announcement warning about the immediate danger of enemy attack. It is broadcast over the radio and/or television, audible emergency alarm systems and electronic sirens no later than 3 minutes after the beginning of transmission of the audible alarm signal.

Upon hearing the alarm: 

  • You must turn off unused electric appliances, gas and water;
  • Take all documents, money, some food, water, means of personal protection and medical aid, the most basic medication, put on some clothes and rush to the nearest building of collective protection or a different shelter;
  • If you stay at home, turn off the light, close the curtains and hide in the basement or another shelter;
  • Do not panic; warn your relatives and neighbours.

“Alarm system check-up” is a voice signal-announcement warning about the ongoing alarm system check-up. This signal is announced, when unsanctioned activation of sirens takes place. It is broadcast over the radio and/or television, audible emergency alarm systems and electronic sirens no later than 3 minutes after the transmission of the audible alarm signal starts.

2. How to behave in case of an emergency

Upon hearing a report about an emergency or an impending danger, the following is advisable:

  • Upon hearing the report about an emergency, keep calm;
  • Upon hearing information about the danger, do not panic, concentrate and calm dawn;
  • Do not leave your residence unless it is necessary;
  • Having listened to the report about the emergency that is about to happen or has already happened, follow the instructions, do not go or drive anywhere, unless it is unnecessary;
  • If you still have to go, turn off electric appliances and gas, water valves, close windows, vents, lock the door and perform all the usual actions which you would do when leaving for at least several days;
  • Turn on the radio in your vehicle. Listen to information reports and recommendations;
  • Upon hearing about the danger, do not overload the connection line; 
  • Try not to use your mobile or landline phones to call your relatives, friends or acquaintances, unless it is completely necessary, because connection lines can be overloaded and blocked. Rescue forces will especially need uninterrupted connection to get reports informing which residential areas have been damaged the most, how many injured there are and where to send help;
  • Call only if you want to inform that the help is required, there are injured people or any other unexpected risk.

When the emergency passes: 

  • Be careful when returning to the location where the emergency took place; 
  • Inspect the buildings carefully. They might be damaged or ravaged and very dangerous as they can collapse at any moment;
  • When you enter the building, do not light your fire with a torch or a candle at any costs. Do not smoke, because it can cause a fire or an explosion. It can happen for many reasons. First of all, because of the gas leak or combustible materials;
  • Keep away from broken wires (also the telephone); any wire is a source of a deadly danger;
  • Do not turn the power on, if you are not sure that the wires are tidy and undamaged;
  • Check if there is no smell of gas or other chemical substances in the house;
  • Do not rush to eat food you have at home. First of all, check it. It can be damaged by chemical substances, mould or gone bad;
  • Do not rush to drink tap or well water. Make sure that it is clear;
  • If you happened to be next to the place, where rescue works are happening and your help is not needed, do not interfere with the work of the rescuers;
  • Do not leave home. The roads can be ruined or obstructed. The wooden bridges are especially dangerous after accidents. If you still have to go, be careful: drive at safe speed. If you face an obstacle dangerous to road users, inform the civil defence services as soon as possible.

The emergency kit

If an emergency happens, every minute is very important; if you have the most necessary things prepared in advance, it can help to save both your health and life. Most of the things can be needed not only for urgent evacuation, but staying at home in case of emergency. Therefore, it is of highest importance to keep them packed and know that they will be immediately accessible. Moreover, all family members must know where they are kept.

The most necessary things in case of emergency are the following:

  • Portable radio or television sets with replacement elements;
  • A portable lantern with replacement elements;
  • First aid supplies;
  • The stock of regularly used medication;
  • Money (cash and credit cards);
  • Documents (a passport, identity card, social security certificate, insurance policies, birth and death certificates, ownership documents);
  • A set of spare car keys;
  • Matches (packed in a waterproof packing), lighters;
  • Signalling instruments;
  • A map and telephone numbers from the location which you are planning to reach; 
  • Special individual items (e.g. cotton and gauze bandages, prescriptions of regularly used medication or copies thereof, replacement batteries for a hearing aid or a wheelchair, spare glasses, etc.).

Additional items will be needed, when evacuating. It is necessary to consider the needs of all family members, especially babies, elderly or disabled people who will need specific items. It is recommended to take the following things:

  • Water (no less than 12 litres for each family member);
  • Non-perishable food supply to last for three days;
  • Food for babies, elderly people or people on a special regime;
  • Kitchen utensils (can opener, disposable glasses, plates, all-purpose knife, trash bags);
  • A set of spare clothes for each family member (footwear, waterproof anoraks, hats, and gloves, warm clothes, glasses);
  • A blanket or a sleeping-bag for each family member;
  • Sanitary and hygiene items (toilet paper, trash bags, disposable napkins, towels, soap, detergent, shampoo, deodorant, toothpaste and toothbrush, comb, lip balm, etc.);
  • Means to spend the time while waiting (books, games, toys for children);
  • Family relics, several family photographs;
  • Other items: paper, pen, threads and needles, a trowel, pliers, a wrench, a whistle, a tent, a compass, some rope, tape, etc.

3. How to behave in case of an explosion

  • Fall on the ground and cover your head with arms.  If you have a chance, be sure to use any cover possible, be it a building, a ditch, a hollow, a tree or even a curb; if you are indoors, it can be a counter, a  table or a wall;
  • Do not rush to leave your shelter. Some fragments fly like a boomerang: they make a circle and fall close to the place of explosion;
  • If you are injured and the fragments no longer fall down, withdraw from the place of explosion. Be aware that the explosion can occur again: such tactics are frequently adopted by terrorists: they organise a small explosion, wait and when the special services come, they perform the actual act of terrorism, thus, interfering with the work of the special services;
  • If the explosion happened indoors, escape through the emergency exits only. It is strictly forbidden to use elevators and other electric equipment;
  • Help to evacuate the injured ones to a safe place and provide first aid. When selecting a safe place, avoid dilapidated buildings, because they or a part thereof can collapse completely;
  • You should report the accident calling the single emergency number 112.

4. How to behave if trapped under the debris

  • The most important thing is not to lose hope. Take a deep breath, assess the situation and try to survive at any cost;
  • Relax trapped limbs. This must be done carefully, slowly moving stuck limbs down and to sides, trying not to move the debris hanging above your head in order for them not to collapse and fall on you;
  • Take care of yourself. Examine your wounds. If the bleeding is strong, press the wound.  If it is cold outside, you have to lie down on your side, curl up in a ball and put your hand underneath your body so the contact with the ground would be as minimal as possible. You can sit as well: draw your knees to the chest, lower you head and cover it with your hands. If there are some clothes, blankets, newspapers, cardboard, etc. around, you must use them as a mat and blankets;
  • Try to find a way to inform about your location. Shout, knock, especially if you hear that the rescue work is taking place. Keep in mind that during each hour of the rescue operation, the rescuers will turn off all equipment and organise at least 10 minutes of silence in order to hear cries of help. The most effective sound is made my knocking a broken pipe with some sort of an iron stick or a stone.  If you have a mobile phone, call and provide information about yourself;
  • Try to find a potential exit. Do not try to move broken beams, bricks or other debris recklessly; they might be supporting the debris of the building hanging above you. If you pull the supporting “piece” carelessly, you can be trapped by the whole new pile of debris;
  • Try to find out whether there are no more people around you in the same situation.

5. How to behave if taken as a hostage

  • Remember, that you have the only purpose: to survive;
  • Accept the situation and be prepared to wait. Try to calm yourself down, prevent other hostages from panicking;
  • You know that it is normal to be afraid. The first 15-45 minutes are the most dangerous; therefore, follow all instructions of the kidnapper. The more you stay together, the lower is the risk that the kidnapper will harm you;
  • Do not speak unless it is necessary, try to be friendly but do not cheat; 
  • Do not beg, justify yourself or cry;
  • Do not comment or suggest anything to the kidnappers;
  • Do not argue with the kidnappers and other hostages, follow a common approach;
  • Do not turn your back to the kidnappers, unless you have received their instructions to do so. Eye contact can be a good thing: people tend to kill less, if they are looked at, yet do not stare at the kidnappers continually;
  • If you are offered some food, do not refuse, even if you do not want it. This will give you strength, while the refusal can antagonise them;
  • Try to have some rest, sit, if it is possible. If the situation continues for a long time, try to sleep;
  • Do not try to run, if you are not completely sure that you will succeed; even if you are completely sure, think twice before trying;
  • If some of the hostages need medical attention, tell this to kidnappers, speak briefly and calmly, do not do anything unless you receive their permission;
  • If you hear that the rescue operation is about to happen or if you hear noise or shooting, find a safe place, lie down on the ground, cover your head with arms and do not make any sudden movements. Do not run at the officers performing the rescue operation at any costs, because you can be mistaken for a kidnapper.

6. How to behave in a crowd

  • When you go to a mass event, do not bring your pets, large items (a backpack or a trunk), video or photo cameras;
  • Wear light and comfortable clothes, button up and zip up all clothes carefully. If possible, do not wear a scarf, a tie, a headscarf and a belt;
  • Wear comfortable, flat footwear, tie your shoelaces well;
  • Do not keep sharp, pointed items in your pockets;
  • When you are in the crowd, keep away from the stage and tribunes;
  • If the event is taking place indoors, try not to be in the centre of the crowd or on its very edge;
  • Keep away from intoxicated, aggressive or armed people;
  • If the event is taking place in an open space, the safest place is on the edge of the crowd;
  • When the crowd moves, move together and do not cling to any objects;
  • If you are in a big crowd, hold your arms close to your diaphragm or to your sides, with your elbows bent: in the crowd, it is more likely to be squeezed than to stumble;
  • Do not keep your hands in your pockets;
  • Try not to pick up things that have fallen on the ground, even if they are very valuable: your life is more precious;
  • If you are in a panicking crowd, throw away all pointy and sharp items that can injure you or the people around; if you wear glasses, remove them as well (it is better to stay without glasses than without eyes), also remove all earrings, take off all chainlets, necklaces, scarves and head-scarves: such things can be deadly dangerous in the crowd; 
  • If you are in the crowd which is forcing its way from the indoors, keep away from the edge as far as possible and try to maintain the balance;
  • If the crowd is crushing you, try to turn around and stand with two people next to you by leaning your shoulders together and forming a triangle. This would help minimally to make some space for the chest to move (breathe);
  • Having fallen down, the most important thing is to protect your head and try to stand up.  If you cannot stand up, curl up, draw your knees to your stomach and cover your head with arms in order to protect the vital organs. 

7. How to provide psychological support for people around

  • Try to protect them against dangers. Make sure that people would not return to dangerous places and would not get hurt; since they are affected by the event, they cannot evaluate it properly due to their psychological condition;
  • Be tolerant to possible stressful situations. People feel anxiety, fear, anger, they can have impaired memory, and it is difficult for them to navigate, think clearly, various symptoms of health problems can occur. Even the most unexpected reactions are normal and probably unavoidable;
  • Help by providing food, drinks, clothes, blankets, bunks, take care of the minimal sanitary conditions; 
  • Take care of the physical condition of the affected ones, provide the first aid, if needed (dress the wounds, give medication);
  • Inquire people about their special needs: a wheelchair, glasses, the hearing aid, a walker or special medical equipment. Provide them, if possible;
  • Speak about what has happened and is happening. Deny the exiting rumours, explain what is actually happening;
  • Explain about the help. Do not lie, even if you want to encourage;
  • Be patient. If there are elderly people affected, you might have to repeat the same answers several times: what has happened, who will help them, where they will spend the night, etc. Try to communicate with people affected by stress as clearly and tersely as possible, use understandable words, do not use specific terms;
  • Do not leave anyone alone. Let them understand that you are interested, you understand how they feel and that you respect their feelings. Do not criticise, or blame anyone;
  • Sympathise with the affected people, encourage them to talk and hear them out. Encourage and calm people down. Give them hope and faith that the hardships will be overcome;
  • Do not tell that “everything will be alright”: the affect ones do not think that way. Better say “yes, it was scary”, “yes, it was sad” but “the danger passed already”, “we are safe now”; 
  • Encourage people to believe in themselves. People feel bad, when they are helpless and very dependent on people that look care after them. Find some activity for everyone;
  • Encourage to communicate with each other. People who react to the situation more adequately can be encouraged to call and speak with people whose reaction to the situation is more acute;
  • Help people to contact their family members. Unknown location of family members, uncertainty about their safety, increases anxiety and aggravate psychological condition. Do everything that is possible to find out the contacts of family members and reach them;
  • If you want to help people whose relatives have died, act respectfully and sympathetically. Do not force to speak, do not pry out and let them to be alone.

8. How to behave in time of war (or when hostile soldiers appear in your town or settlement)

First of all, you need to realise that you are a civilian whose concern is to stay alive and safe and to withdraw from the area of hostilities. You are not an officer, a soldier, a reservist or a volunteer: they must follow a predefined plan and behave in an organized manner. At the moment you do not have special knowledge and skills to fight. Your aim is to reach the safe zone and then to decide what to do next.

During the conflict, the civilians must understand that the houses they live in are not more important than their life and that they do not have to defend and protect it at any cost. If it is estimated that confrontations will take place in your residential district, it is advisable to evacuate to rural areas, where supplies can be stored in advance. It is very likely that during the conflict or war, money will be of little value; therefore, it is more important to store potentially marketable products and items (e.g. cigarettes, batteries, accumulators, matches, non-perishable food, and strong alcohol) which you will be able to use for exchange.

When the war begins or hostile soldiers arrive to your town or a settlement, the following is very important (when trying to evacuate) :

  1. Keep your mind cool.  Do not panic and keep your head clear. Shooting outside the window are not the end of the world. Even if there is a reception point of injured people in your stairwell and the gunners have established themselves in the neighbouring apartment, this does not mean that you have to drop everything and run away. Such decision may cost your life. Evaluate who is shooting at whom and why.
  2. Stay away from the soldiers. If your home is in the area of active military actions, you have to retreat. Especially, if soldiers of one side or another have established themselves next to you. Sooner or later they will start shooting and being a civilian, you can became a random victim.
  3. Take care of supplies. The problem of big cities is that they are greatly in need of food. In the countryside, it is easier to get some food, whereas in large cities getting food can become a serious problem one day after the beginning of military actions.  It is possible to buy food provisions only in advance. When the first shots are fired and the threat to life becomes real, the stores will be closed as they can become targets for robbers. It is possible that   food warehouses, product bases and larger supermarkets will be taken over by soldiers performing resistance and defensive actions because they have to ensure food supply.
  4. Take care of water supplies. Water is a big problem. When active military actions take place, it is usually shut off. Moreover, this can happen due to diversions and accidental damage to the plumbing. Do not panic. There are places where water is accumulated. One of them is the toilet tank. Fill containers with this water. It will be enough for one person to last for a week. Water can be found in a melting refrigerator as well. Moreover, most of us store some liquids and food in our home. Before withdrawing, take the most necessary things.
  5. Do no keep everything in one place. If you are preparing to leave the conflict or the military zone, put your belongings to bags that you can carry. If the shooting is happening around, do not get into the car: it will be an easy target and neither of the warring factions will let you to move easily. A potential threat is liquidated in the war zone. Moreover, when the war begins, roads are usually damaged or closed. Make sure to put everything into a smaller backpack and find some room for water and food in it. Do not take it off at any costs. Carry the backpack on your back. There must be nothing on your belly, because if the shots are fired, you will have to fall on the ground. If the belongings you carry does not allow you to crouch to the ground, you will become an easy target.
  6. Show clearly that you are a civilian. Take a white sheet or a blanket and wrap it around you backpack. Your clothing cannot contain any camouflage colours or military symbols, no special gloves or hunting knives or canteens hanging in a visible place. You are a civilian and you must show it immediately. In the battlefield, if you look like a soldier, you are fighting. If you are a civilian and show it clearly, no one will possibly try to kill you. This does not mean, of course, that you will be able to walk around the city streets without any protection. A random bullet can come at any time. 
  7. Do not sacrifice your life for property. Remember that no possessions are worthy of your life. If armed soldiers come to your apartment and start going through your closets, do not provoke a conflict at any costs. It is fine, if you manage to walk through the door calmly. Each attempt to resist or to defend one’s property (a house, a car, valuable possessions, etc.) and to assert one’s rights will only evoke aggression. This is worth remembering, especially if you have your children with you. Usually no pleas or begging that you have children will be of any use. We have discussed that you have to wear two backpacks, a big one and a smaller one. It is highly possible that if your larger backpack is taken, the smaller one will remain with you, provided you show that you have the same things in it as in the big one like water, food and warm clothes (if it is cold outside). Remember that during the military actions, you will not be the only one urged to leave your home. When people travel in larger groups, they usually help one another and their chance to defend themselves against the robbers increases.
  8. Forget curiosity. Your purpose is to get away from the city or the area of military operations. No swerving from the course in order to have a look at what is happening. During the battles in the city, both warring groups use groups of saboteurs widely; therefore, any encounter with them can be fatal: you can be mistaken for the enemy, the spy, etc. and eliminated. 
  9. Travel only by day. During the military actions, it is normal to move 10-15 kilometres per day when carrying one’s luggage. Do not expect to escape quickly, especially if you are travelling with children. Such a journey is a serious trial for children; therefore, avoid moving in the dark. For your own safety, you must be clearly visible. At night, it is very difficult to separate a civilian from a solider; therefore, the opportunity to get shot increases several times. Select a good place to sleep at night. Do not light the fire. Forget cigarettes: their smell and flame catches unwanted attention.
  10. Do not go anywhere: look for checkpoints. Contemporary cities are frequently surrounded by bypasses. This allows surrounding a city very quickly. The full blockade of a city is very rare, when military actions start. Usually, fleeing civilians are released through designated points. This is what you have to look for: do not go anywhere. Checkpoints are established specifically for the civilians to leave safely. Do not be surprised, if you are stripped off your valuable possessions. You are a resident from the enemy country. The soldiers will not have to carry your bags; therefore, they can take and store them. The most important thing for you is to withdraw from the area of hostilities. To leave the round-up without no personal belongings is normal. Even if you think that you have hidden the jewellery well, believe us, this will be the first place where they will look for it. When you escape the war zone, clearly define your future route. Maybe your garden-plot is at an accessible distance, where you have food and warm clothes. Maybe you know the closest homestead, where you can find drinking water. Following a known route will be more convenient and safer. Try not to get lost. When you regain your strength, you will have to make a decision. If you want to move further, your final destination must be the boarder of the closest friendly state. If your country is surrounded by enemies, it will be virtually impossible to retreat abroad without money or documents. You will have to stay in the country and join the resistance: to become one of the messengers, food suppliers or maybe defend your country with a gun or simply to stay in a place where military actions are not so active.

If evacuation failed, it is necessary to do the following:

  1. Take care of food. Survival is possible for those who have food, something to drink, things to exchange into lacking items (or, for example, to exchange something in order to cross a guarded checkpoint). If you going to the store, invite some friends. This way, you will be able to take more products back and it is less possible that you will get robbed when coming back.
  2. Acquire a gun. It will help you to protect yourself against bandits. It is noteworthy that the gun can be acquired only for the purpose of self-defence.
  3. Evaluate whether your house is next to the mortar, if there is a sniper on your roof, also your house might be in the “cleaning” area. The opponents will try to destroy the position of the mortar, whereas sniper position can be fired at even from tanks. The houses are usually “cleaned” very roughly (by throwing grenades). If your house is in such danger, it is necessary to withdraw from it.
  4. Do not touch the deceased. There can be grenades under the corpse, therefore, when trying to take the gun or the ammo from the deceased, do it without turning it over or searching it thoroughly.
  5. Find friends of similar fate. If you stay in the city, try to gather into groups with acquaintances, friends and relatives: together it will be easier to defend yourself from bandits and marauders.
  6. Install a shelter. All apartment buildings have lockers. They can serve as hiding places during bombing; it is also a good place to have food products, fuel, medications or to store any other resources. If you do not have a locker, you can install a safe room. The most suitable for it is the ground floor of the house. Select a room with fewest windows, because they will have to be boarded up. However, please remember that a window is the most suitable emergency exit; if you barricade windows completely and the overlays crash, you will be trapped.

How to turn your basement into a shelter:

  • The most suitable basements are the ones with concrete overlays and solid walls;
  • Hammer together wide and solid shelves and place them against the wall. If needed, the shelves can be used as benches or bunks;
  • Plan where the second exit from the basement should be and if possible, install it; 
  • A vent-hole must be pre-installed in the basement.  Plan additional ventilation: the most suitable thing is the pipe with the diameter of 150 mm. Think how quickly you will be able to install it;
  • If you have a stove in the basement, its chimney must be lead outside and the floor under the stove must be protected against potential fire (tiled, with a concrete slab underneath, etc.);
  • The basement floor should be covered with planks or wood panels to retain heat;
  • If the basement has windows, be sure to have some bags. Basement windows must be covered externally with sand-filled bags in order for fragments not to enter inside;
  • Bring a portable stove (an oven) and a kerosene lamp to the basement; keep a part of supply (water, food), warm clothes and necessary accessories in the basement;
  • Keep a 40 l can or other container for water; 
  • Decide in advance, where you are going to install a toilet (it is possible to use a bucket with a lid);
  • If you live in an apartment building, it is possible that you are not going to hide in the basement alone; therefore, you can collaborate with your neighbours:
  • Several stoves will be enough for the entire basement; they should be installed next to the basement windows leading the chimneys through the windows; the stoves will also perform the lighting function;
  • You will be able to dedicate one room for food, the other one for toilet; you will be able to cook together, to replenish food and water supply using your joint efforts.




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